Author ORCID Identifier

Andrzej Kowalski 0000-0002-1218-8528

Bartosz Apanowicz 0000-0002-7268-8786

Piotr Polanin 0000-0002-8184-4170


LSDS is defined as surface fissures, steps as well as structures formed by them in the form of stairs (several steps), thresholds, ditches, and flexure. The paper presents a case study of formed LSDS – the origin, and possible methods to assess its occurrence on the basis of the research carried out in the Central Mining Institute. The authors showed that the presence of LSDS leads not only to the horizontal deformation but also contributes to the formation of vertical curvatures of terrain that cause fissures in the near-surface layer of the rock mass in the areas with a thick layer of tertiary clay and a thin layer of Quaternary strata. The accumulated experience also indicates that there is an influence of other mining factors, such as the interval between operations, rate, and direction of operation, which may contribute to the occurrence of LSDS. Moreover, the authors pointed to the fact that forecasting LSDS is problematic and complex and is subject to uncertainty. At the same time, the scoring method is quite effective in the case of LSDS forecasting.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.