Author ORCID Identifier

Krzysztof Wierzchowski: 0000-0003-3642-0018

Agnieszka Klupa: 0000-0002-6703-1085

Barbara Białecka: 0000-0002-6002-5475

Joanna Całus Moszko: 0000-0002-5392-7657


Unburned coal grains make it difficult to use fly ash economically, which causes energy losses in the fuel. The article presents the possibilities of separating unburned coal from selected fly ash. In order to assess the possibility of separation of unburned carbon, the analysis of grain density and ash composition was used. Unburned coal was separated by four methods – one wet gravity and three dry methods. It has been found that despite very fine ash grains, the quality and quantity of separation products are significantly dependent on the separation method used and the separated grains’ qualitative characteristics. The analysis of the coal grains under an electron microscope has revealed that they contain mineral inclusions. Their presence enables selective separation of carbon without first grinding the middling grains. The most advantageous results of the separation of unburned coal were obtained by the electrostatic separation method. Separated coal can be used in high-value carbon applications.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.