Author ORCID Identifier

Andrzej Biessikirski: 0000-0002-2023-6454

Mateusz Pytlik: 0000-0001-6659-2406

Michał Dworzak: 0000-0002-6356-3228

Michał Twardosz: 0000-0003-1836-8180

Mariusz Wądrzyk: 0000-0002-6452-2276

Rafał Janus: 0000-0001-9143-8670


ANFO is one of the most commonly used explosives in open-pit mining, usually produced by mixing systems on the blast site. One of the problems usually not considered is the moisture”s influence on the stored ammonium nitrate(V). The influence of moisture on fumes and the detonation process has been investigated by placing ammonium nitrate(V) prills in the climatic chamber. In the investigation, the influence was evaluated for ANFO samples which were produced based on the two types of fuel oils. It was concluded that the 3.0% moisture level resulted in the lowest NOx content in both case studies. Further increased moisture resulted in blending problems (water absorption instead of fuel oils). An additional evaluation was made to stimulate the influence of wetted boreholes. The data showed that the equivalent mass of water present in the borehole would generate more fumes compared with the explosive produced from wetted ammonium nitrate(V) prill. Moreover, it was established that the second type of fuel oil can be applied as a fuel component, especially in the winter season.

Keywords: explosives, ANFO, moisture, fumes, ammonium nitrate(V)

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.